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商业银行按揭贷款保证金执行问题的浅析

发布时间:2016-11-28    

商业银行按揭贷款保证金执行问题的浅析

 

李和林

 

按揭贷款买房是现代人购买住房的重要方式,给购买人提供了极大的便利,在很大程度上提高了社会的购买力。然随之也带来了一系列的社会问题,其中按揭贷款保证金的执行就是人民法院在执行工作中遇到的新挑战。人民法院在执行有关按揭保证金的案件中,向银行发出执行通知书,要求冻结、划拨被执行人按揭贷款保证金,商业银行会以种种理由提出执行异议,拒不执行法院生效的法律文书。笔者从人民法院实际执行工作切入,以我国现有的法律为基础,探讨按揭贷款保证金的执行工作,以期对今后我院此类案件的执行工作有所帮助,但更是抛砖引玉,希望能看到同行更多此类经典之文。

一、按揭贷款保证金的产生

  为了降低购房门槛,扩大商品房买卖市场,上世纪90年代,我国从国外引进了“按揭贷款”。此间,楼市异常火爆,使许多缺乏购买力的人群圆满了住房梦。按揭贷款是一把双刃剑,让广大群众圆满住房梦,让开发商及时实现资金的回笼,也会让银行承担更大的信贷风险。银行为了减小信贷的风险,在房屋权属证书未办理前,银行要求开发商提供按揭贷款的连带保证责任。其中,在房屋权属证书未办理前,扣留购房人部分按揭贷款作为保证金,当购房人出现违约行为,不能履行还款义务时,银行则将此款用以代替购房人偿还贷款,以抵御银行信贷风险。被扣留的该保证金在房屋权属证书办理完结后,银行会将此款归还给出卖人,即开发商。

二、按揭贷款保证金的法律地位

在强制执行中,商业银行一般会认为按揭贷款保证金属于担保物权中的动产质押,其法律依据在于《最高人民法院关于适用中华人民共和国担保法若干问题的解释》第八十五条,该法律条文表述为:债务人或者第三人将金钱以特户、封金、保证金等形式特定化后,移交债权人占有作为债权担保,债务人不履行债务时,债权人可以以该金钱优先受偿。该条款是金钱这种特殊动产作为质权标的物质权法律效力认定。根据《物权法》的规定,货币物权变动的公式方式为占有和交付,以持有人为货币的权利人,货币权利的转移以交付的方式来完成,与其他动产并无不同。但是,货币作为一定特殊的物,取得占有权即取得所有权。一般动产质押是原则上是质物占有的转移,而所有权还在债务人的手中,质物只有在债务人没有履行债务时债权人享有有限受偿的权利。用货币作为质物设定的质押权有悖于物权变动的基本原则。但是根据担保法司法解释的规定,将金钱特定化后可以作为质物。因此,商业银行在发放贷款时,为了降低放贷风险,通常会要求房地产开发企业提供一定数额的保证金,此保证金打入其在该行的特定账户,只有当按揭贷款债务人按期归还贷款后,此保证金才归还企业。

     在房地产交易行业,购房者在没有取得房产证前,房地产销售企业通常会为购房者的个人购房贷款提供阶段性担保,即在没有取得房产证用于抵押个人贷款前,由房地产销售者为购房者提供个人贷款担保,取得房产证有用房产作为担保物抵押贷款。

三、按揭贷款保证金在强制执行中的存在的问题

在实践中,商业银行为了降低放贷风险,在发放贷款时通房地产开发商签订“保证金”借款合同,将该“保证金”存入房地产开发商的特定账户内,人民法院对该账户采取冻结、划拨等强制执行措施时,商业银行会以该账户内的资金系质押担保特定化资金而拒绝人民法院对其采取强制措施,或者主张优先受偿的权利。一方是商业银行阻碍人民法院的强制执行,另一方是申请执行人债权的亟待实现,人民法院对按揭贷款保证金是否可以强制执行,我国现目前法律和相关司法解释并没有作出明确的规定,致使人民法院执行工作陷入困境。

四、按揭贷款保证金法强制执行的分析

按揭贷款保证金是商业银行为了降级信贷风险,与房地产开发商签订担保合同,其旨在购房人不履行按揭贷款的还款义务时,由房地产开发商承担连带清偿责任。一般情况下,购房人如果违约,无力偿还借款,按照合同的约定银行可以直接扣取保证金。购房人者是够有违约而不偿还借款的行为还未发生,故该保证金账户只是具有一定得信用保证性质。人民法法院在执行工作中对按揭贷款保证金账户实行冻结、划拨强制措施,致使该保证金账户的余额不足,银行可以要求房地产开发商补足该金额,如果房地产开发商不补足该金额,应视为房地产开发商违约,商业银行则可以停止给购房人发放贷款。如果在保证金金额不足,房地产开发商并没有将该金额补足的情况下,商业银行继续给购房人发放贷款,应当视为商业银行存在过错,其应当承担这样的信贷风险。人民法院对按揭贷款保证金账户采取强制执行措施时,即使商业银行认为按照合同规定其享有优先受偿权,但也应当通过司法程序加以解决。

 

 

                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       


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